Kidney Stones

Those who have had a kidney stone will know how painful this condition can be. We know that roughly 50% of patients with their first kidney stone will make more kidney stones in future so prevention is important. The following is general advice on preventing another episode.

1. Collect the stone and bring it to your next appointment

Not all stones are composed of the same mineral. Mr Thyer will send the stone to the laboratory to have it analysed. Knowing the type of stone will direct advice on prevention.

2. Drink fluid

There is good evidence that fewer stones are produced when patients drink more fluid. As a rule of thumb stone formers should drink the following volume of fluid according to your weight:

  • Under 70kg - 2L fluid per day
  • Between 70 and 100 kg 2.5 L water per day
  • Over 100 kg 3L


  1. Alcoholic and caffeinated beverages should not be included as these dehydrate you
  2. Volumes will change according to the season (more fluid in Summer and less in Winter)
  3. Those with heart or kidney disease should check with their GP prior to commencing this fluid intake
3. Keep your urine clear or light yellow

If you are drinking the above volumes and your urine is still dark then increase your fluid until it is a light yellow or clear

4. Decrease salt in your diet

Salt in the diet increases excreted calcium and will dehydrate you leading to more stone formation.

  • Do not add salt to your food
  • Significant salt is added to fast food, drinks and packaged foods
5. Citric acid

Citric acid will help prevent some stones from forming. Before increasing citric acid in your diet Mr Thyer would need to know the type of stone you produce as occasionally citric acid can cause other stone types to form. Citric acid is found naturally in citrus fruits and can be bought in tablet form at the Chemist

6. Protein / Meat

Excess protein in the diet can cause excess uric acid and reduce citrate production. This will lead to more kidney stones. As a general rule, patients who form stones should limit meat to a small piece twice per week and where possible eat white rather than red meat.

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